Peled Migraine Surgery Blog

Information and knowledge about migraine relief surgery.

Japan and Australia Can Get Migraine Relief Surgery!

migraine4

We are asked quite a bit whether we will see patients from Japan or Australia for migraine surgery, or if we’ll see out-of-town patients as well. Of course we do!  Anyone may be able to achieve significant and lasting relief no matter where they call home! We have helped patients from all across the United States, and as far away as India and Brazil. We are excited to help people from all over the globe as peripheral nerve surgery is an area to which I have dedicated a large portion of my practice and is something about which I remain very passionate. We wish to extend an invitation to everyone anywhere to look us up and decide for themselves whether we might be able to help to reduce or eliminate their chronic headaches with peripheral nerve surgery.

 

I have performed hundreds of decompression procedures on nerves for chronic headaches with high success rates. Many of these people had been living with their headaches for decades and had resigned themselves to a life of chronic pain despite medication. Happily, we proved that was not the case. Furthermore, because we see so many foreign and out of town patients, we have developed a system to help make your overall experience as seamless as possible. We can assist with travel planning, lodging, transportation to and from the operating room and even post-operative nursing care if required. In addition, Dr. Peled is available for initial record review and evaluations via Skype or Google+ to help determine if a trip from home is a worthwhile endeavor. Finally, because post-operative follow-up is an extremely important part of the surgical experience and critical to achieving optimal outcomes, we use these same modalities to keep tabs on our patients after they have gone home and remain available to discuss issues with your local treating physicians if needed. This important time can be hard for patients as well as doctors that can't see their patients directly, but our practice has refined this process to ask the right questions and determine if any further action is needed.

 

So if you suffer from chronic headaches, please visit us at www.peledmigrainesurgery.com or call us at 415-751-0583 or 925-933-5700 to find out if we can reduce or eliminate your migraines. We look forward to hearing from you!

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How Long Does Recovery Take Following Nerve Decompression Surgery for Chronic Headaches?

 migraine2How long does recovery take following nerve decompression surgery for chronic headaches? The answer to that question can be quite variable and depends on a number of parameters, but a few general principles apply.

How long does recovery take following nerve decompression surgery for chronic headaches? The answer to that question can be quite variable and depends on a number of parameters, but a few general principles apply. First and foremost, each patient is different in terms of their tolerance for discomfort. What may be a 9 out of 10 pain to one person may only be a 5 out of 10 pain to another person. Secondly, the number/distribution of the nerves which are decompressed is also unique to each individual. Obviously, if someone has 8 nerves decompressed in one procedure they are likely to have more discomfort than someone who only had one nerve decompressed. Finally, surgical technique and appropriate post-operative care are also important in achieving optimal results with minimal discomfort and downtime.

Generally speaking, most patients have mild-to-moderate discomfort following surgery. Pain medication and anti-nausea medication are prescribed to help patients manage these symptoms in the first few days-weeks following their procedure. The comment I hear most often from patients describing the first few weeks following their operation is that the chronic headache-type pain that they’ve always had is now gone, but that they now have discomfort at the site of the operation, which is expected. After a few weeks, this incisional discomfort diminishes and patients really start to feel great. I just saw a patient recently who was 3 weeks post-decompression of both greater occipital nerves and the left lesser occipital nerve. She used to have severe headaches often lasting hours and even several days at a time and which would come on every other or every day. Over the intervening 3 weeks, she only reported 3 minor headaches which lasted a few minutes. Her surgical pain had diminished to a point where she had not required any narcotic medication after the 5 day following her procedure. Now that her incisional discomfort was at a minimum, she stated that she felt like a new person. The only restriction following her operation was avoiding strenuous exercise for 3-4 weeks. After that, her activity level can gradually be increased to its baseline level over a period of another 2-3 weeks. Patients may eat and drink whatever they like immediately following surgery and can shower in 48 hours. This type of response is fairly typical among my patient population. There are almost never any sutures to remove as they are all dissolvable. After a few weeks, a new you!

To find out more about peripheral nerve surgery and how it may help your migraines, please visit http://peledmigrainesurgery.comor call us at (415)751-0583 to schedule a formal consultation.

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The Staged Approach To Pain Relief

migraine

I was recently asked why some people require more than one operation to obtain optimal relief.  As usual, the answer has many components to it so I will try to delineate some of these issues below.  Let me preface these remarks by stating that what I write below is my opinion only and how I approach patients, but should not be considered dogma.  While a number of colleagues also use this approach, it is not necessarily shared by every peripheral nerve surgeon, some of whom will be more aggressive and some less aggressive. 

In situations where there are many nerves that will require surgical intervention to achieve an optimal result, there are number of reasons why I prefer to stage the operations.  The first is that in many cases, patients often say that one area usually flares up first and when very severe or unable to be controlled, causes the headache and discomfort to spread to other areas.  For example, s/he will state that their neck gets tight, they get occipital headache pain and if the medication is unable to help, the headache spreads to the temples and forehead.  In these particular cases, there may be a reasonable assumption that the occipital area is triggering the frontal and temporal headaches.  Therefore, theoretically if the occipital nerves are appropriately addressed, with time and healing, those triggering nerves should calm down such that the frontal and temporal areas are only triggered infrequently and hopefully to a much lesser degree.  In other words, if you can remove the fuse, the dynamite stick will never explode and therefore an operation to address the frontal and temporal nerves may never be required.  Even if this patient continues to have some degree of headaches, these headaches may be so infrequent and/or relatively mild such that they feel the remaining symptoms are easily manageable and don’t want another operation.  As I’ve said in prior posts, no one should tell you whether or not you should live with whatever pain you have.  Doing so is making a value judgment - only the patient can and should make that determination.  Secondly, let’s assume that a person has the appropriate operation over the occipital nerves and has a successful outcome with respect to their posterior headaches, but the temporal and frontal headaches persist even after several months of recovery.  In those cases, while another operation may be required to address the temporal and frontal nerves, there is now good reason to believe that the second procedure is likely to be successful.  The converse is also true, however, in that if the occipital procedure is performed correctly and for the right indications, but yields no result, I would wonder whether or not a temporal/frontal procedure would be indicated since I would be less confident surgical intervention in those areas would be successful if the same approach was unsuccessful over the occipital area, thereby precluding the potential for complications in areas where surgical intervention may not be successful.  Therefore, staging an operation has the potential to give you information about whether or not a second procedure will be helpful.

A third reason for staging these operations relates to the safety of an operation.  While I obviously agree that neuralgia (occipital or trigeminal branch) is a significant medical problem, these operations are elective.  Therefore, the most important thing we can do for the patient is given them a safe operation and try to minimize complications while maximizing the potential for a successful outcome.  From a technical standpoint, the longer a surgical procedure takes, the greater the chance for complications or issues arising from anesthesia.  While long operations can certainly be done safely, when it comes to elective surgery, the more efficient a procedure can be the better.  Therefore, if I had a choice between one 8-hour operation or two 4-hour operations, I would choose the latter because there is likely a lower risk for deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs that can embolize), the need for an in-patient stay, post-operative nausea and other anesthesia-related issues. 

A fourth reason for staging operations has to do with recovery.  In my opinion (and as many of my patients will attest), one of the hardest parts of the surgical experience is the post-operative recovery which often has many ups and downs apart from the immediate, peri-operative surgical discomfort.  With respect to the latter, if you have incisions on the front, the sides and the back of your head bilaterally, I can only imagine how uncomfortable the whole head must feel and I often wonder how these patients rest at night since sleeping on any portion of the scalp is likely to result in discomfort.  Rest post-operatively is critical and lack thereof is potentially problematic.  In addition, as decompressed or transected nerves are manipulated in the operating room, the normal, post-operative inflammation can lead to many nerve-related symptoms which, if they occur all over the scalp as opposed to just posteriorly or over the temples, is likely to be quite uncomfortable.  Greater degrees of discomfort often lead to increased opioid use which, as many people will agree, can lead to a whole host of other issues such as constipation, cognitive impairment (e.g. sedation), nausea etc.

One last comment: I don’t use any one of these contra-indications in isolation.  They are all considered together as part of the overall clinical impression when I go over a patient’s records, examine him/her and perform whatever diagnostic maneuvers are necessary.  It is for these reasons among many others that I always recommend a consultation with a peripheral nerve surgeon when deciding if surgical intervention (whether decompression/neuroplasty or neurectomy/implantation) is appropriate.  I also believe that among the many questions patient’s should ask their potential surgeons is how they approach patient and why, especially if their case will involve more than one or two incisions.  I hope that these thoughts are helpful.

For more information, or to make an appointment, call Peled Migraine Surgery at 415-751-0583 and visit www.peledmigrainesurgery.com to learn more about migraine relief through surgery. 

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Phantom Pain - How Come It Hurts If It’s Numb?

Nerve Pain

It seems that almost daily, I get a question from some patient somewhere wondering why their (insert body part here) hurts when they’ve had a nerve injury despite the fact that the area feels numb to the touch. This phenomenon can be seen in patients suffering from diabetic neuropathy (most commonly noted in the lower extremities), amputees with phantom limb pain and anyone with a sensory nerve injury anywhere else (e.g. the head/neck region). I will qualify my remarks below by saying that this topic is a huge one and cannot be covered in its entirety in a brief post or even a book chapter. There are whole journals published monthly devoted to the study of such clinical dilemmas. The goal here however is to provide a general understanding of why one might have these types of sensations and as a launch point for discussion with your treating physician about what can be done. I will also use phantom limb pain as the template for understanding this problem as it is one of the most common manifestations of this problem and the one most conceptually accessible to a non-physician.

First of all, what is phantom limb pain? Simply put, it is the sensation of pain from a body part that no longer exists. For example, a right below-knee amputee feels as if the right foot is being squeezed and is painful, even though that very foot was removed a long time ago. But how is this possible? Phantom limb pain has traditionally been hypothesized to occur as a consequence of abnormal mutability of signals within the brain (specifically the cerebral cortex) as a result of lost input from a limb. Translating from medicalese, since the sensory input from a limb no longer exists, the neurons within the brain that used to map to that part of the body re-organize themselves in an abnormal way thus leading to the perception of pain. Another potential mechanism is that the nerve ends from those nerves that used to go to the foot and now reside in the amputation stump are irritated in some way, but still go to that part of the brain which mediated right foot sensation. Therefore, again, when those peripheral nerves fire, the patient perceives that they have right-sided foot pain even though there is no right foot because those signals ultimately still end up in the right-foot-part of the brain (which of course still exists). This situation might occur if you strike the nerves within the stump (e.g. while wearing an ill-fitting prosthesis) of if they are neuromatous. It might also occur if a nerve end that has been implanted into a muscle in the neck is “tweaked” by that muscle. There are other theories as well which state that nerves within the spinal cord that receive sensory input from an absent limb fire abnormally, thus ultimately sending messages to the brain that one is experiencing pain. So which theory is correct?

Well, as with many things in life this problem is not a zero-sum game. In other words it’s not that one theory is absolutely right and the others are all wrong. The overall pain sensations are likely due to a combination of factors. In fact, I was just reviewing an article in a prominent pain journal in which they demonstrate that blocking a peripheral nerve in an amputation stump leads to some persistence of phantom limb pain, whereas blocking nerves in the spinal cord leading to that limb resulted in temporary, but complete cessation of said pain. This result would suggest that it is these spinal nerves that mediate this pain. However, the authors then go on to admit that electric charges emanating from peripheral nerves within a stump are likely responsible for the sensation of phantom pain when a person bears weight, such as while wearing their prosthesis. My take home message from this paper is therefore that there are several components to this phantom pain. One component may occur at rest or at night when no pressure is placed on the stump. This component of the phantom pain is important and may be treated by addressing those spinal nerves. However, if you are an amputee, you’ll likely want to walk using a prosthesis at some point. If so, those peripheral nerves at the stump also need to be addressed so that this component of phantom pain gets better allowing the patient to ambulate. Indeed, this latter mechanism is the partial rationale behind targeted muscle re-innervation in the extremities. Therefore, in any individual patient, the optimal pain relief will probably only be achieved by several specialties working together to attack the problem from a number of angles.

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New Paper Published - Anatomic and Compression Topography of the Lesser Occipital Nerve.

My newest paper, Anatomic and Compression Topography of the Lesser Occipital Nerve co-authored with Giorgio Pietramaggiori MD and Saja Scherer MD has been published by PRS Global Open, the International Open Access Journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons!  The paper, discussing how the knowledge of LON (Lesser Occipital Nerve) anatomy can aid in nerve dissection and preservation, thereby leading to successful outcomes without requiring neurectomy.  The article can be found here and is printed in entirety below.

 


 

{pdf=http://www.peledmigrainesurgery.com/images/Anatomic_and_Compression_Topography_of_the_Lesser.99345.pdf|100%|930|google}

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Beverly Hills Migraine Sufferers - Call Us!

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We are asked quite a bit whether we will see Beverly Hills patients for migraine surgery, or if we’ll see out-of-town patients as well. Of course we do!  Anyone may be able to achieve significant and lasting relief no matter where they call home! We have helped patients from all across the United States, and as far away as India and Brazil. We are excited to help people from all over the globe as peripheral nerve surgery is an area to which I have dedicated a large portion of my practice and is something about which I remain very passionate. We wish to extend an invitation to everyone anywhere to look us up and decide for themselves whether we might be able to help to reduce or eliminate their chronic headaches with peripheral nerve surgery.

I have performed hundreds of decompression procedures on nerves for chronic headaches with high success rates. Many of these people had been living with their headaches for decades and had resigned themselves to a life of chronic pain despite medication. Happily, we proved that was not the case. Furthermore, because we see so many foreign and out of town patients, we have developed a system to help make your overall experience as seamless as possible. We can assist with travel planning, lodging, transportation to and from the operating room and even post-operative nursing care if required. In addition, Dr. Peled is available for initial record review and evaluations via Skype or Google+ to help determine if a trip from home is a worthwhile endeavor. Finally, because post-operative follow-up is an extremely important part of the surgical experience and critical to achieving optimal outcomes, we use these same modalities to keep tabs on our patients after they have gone home and remain available to discuss issues with your local treating physicians if needed. This important time can be hard for patients as well as doctors that can't see their patients directly, but our practice has refined this process to ask the right questions and determine if any further action is needed.

So if you suffer from chronic headaches, please visit us at www.peledmigrainesurgery.com or call us at 415-751-0583 or 925-933-5700 to find out if we can reduce or eliminate your migraines. We look forward to hearing from you!

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Migraine Pain Relief in Stages

headache - medium

I was recently asked why some people require more than one operation to obtain optimal relief.  As usual, the answer has many components to it so I will try to delineate some of these issues below.  Let me preface these remarks by stating that what I write below is my opinion only and how I approach patients, but should not be considered dogma.  While a number of colleagues also use this approach, it is not necessarily shared by every peripheral nerve surgeon, some of whom will be more aggressive and some less aggressive. 

In situations where there are many nerves that will require surgical intervention to achieve an optimal result, there are number of reasons why I prefer to stage the operations.  The first is that in many cases, patients often say that one area usually flares up first and when very severe or unable to be controlled, causes the headache and discomfort to spread to other areas.  For example, s/he will state that their neck gets tight, they get occipital headache pain and if the medication is unable to help, the headache spreads to the temples and forehead.  In these particular cases, there may be a reasonable assumption that the occipital area is triggering the frontal and temporal headaches.  Therefore, theoretically if the occipital nerves are appropriately addressed, with time and healing, those triggering nerves should calm down such that the frontal and temporal areas are only triggered infrequently and hopefully to a much lesser degree.  In other words, if you can remove the fuse, the dynamite stick will never explode and therefore an operation to address the frontal and temporal nerves may never be required.  Even if this patient continues to have some degree of headaches, these headaches may be so infrequent and/or relatively mild such that they feel the remaining symptoms are easily manageable and don’t want another operation.  As I’ve said in prior posts, no one should tell you whether or not you should live with whatever pain you have.  Doing so is making a value judgment - only the patient can and should make that determination.  Secondly, let’s assume that a person has the appropriate operation over the occipital nerves and has a successful outcome with respect to their posterior headaches, but the temporal and frontal headaches persist even after several months of recovery.  In those cases, while another operation may be required to address the temporal and frontal nerves, there is now good reason to believe that the second procedure is likely to be successful.  The converse is also true, however, in that if the occipital procedure is performed correctly and for the right indications, but yields no result, I would wonder whether or not a temporal/frontal procedure would be indicated since I would be less confident surgical intervention in those areas would be successful if the same approach was unsuccessful over the occipital area, thereby precluding the potential for complications in areas where surgical intervention may not be successful.  Therefore, staging an operation has the potential to give you information about whether or not a second procedure will be helpful.

A third reason for staging these operations relates to the safety of an operation.  While I obviously agree that neuralgia (occipital or trigeminal branch) is a significant medical problem, these operations are elective.  Therefore, the most important thing we can do for the patient is given them a safe operation and try to minimize complications while maximizing the potential for a successful outcome.  From a technical standpoint, the longer a surgical procedure takes, the greater the chance for complications or issues arising from anesthesia.  While long operations can certainly be done safely, when it comes to elective surgery, the more efficient a procedure can be the better.  Therefore, if I had a choice between one 8-hour operation or two 4-hour operations, I would choose the latter because there is likely a lower risk for deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs that can embolize), the need for an in-patient stay, post-operative nausea and other anesthesia-related issues. 

A fourth reason for staging operations has to do with recovery.  In my opinion (and as many of my patients will attest), one of the hardest parts of the surgical experience is the post-operative recovery which often has many ups and downs apart from the immediate, peri-operative surgical discomfort.  With respect to the latter, if you have incisions on the front, the sides and the back of your head bilaterally, I can only imagine how uncomfortable the whole head must feel and I often wonder how these patients rest at night since sleeping on any portion of the scalp is likely to result in discomfort.  Rest post-operatively is critical and lack thereof is potentially problematic.  In addition, as decompressed or transected nerves are manipulated in the operating room, the normal, post-operative inflammation can lead to many nerve-related symptoms which, if they occur all over the scalp as opposed to just posteriorly or over the temples, is likely to be quite uncomfortable.  Greater degrees of discomfort often lead to increased opioid use which, as many people will agree, can lead to a whole host of other issues such as constipation, cognitive impairment (e.g. sedation), nausea etc.

One last comment: I don’t use any one of these contra-indications in isolation.  They are all considered together as part of the overall clinical impression when I go over a patient’s records, examine him/her and perform whatever diagnostic maneuvers are necessary.  It is for these reasons among many others that I always recommend a consultation with a peripheral nerve surgeon when deciding if surgical intervention (whether decompression/neuroplasty or neurectomy/implantation) is appropriate.  I also believe that among the many questions patient’s should ask their potential surgeons is how they approach patient and why, especially if their case will involve more than one or two incisions.  I hope that these thoughts are helpful.

For more information, or to make an appointment, call Peled Migraine Surgery at 415-751-0583 and visit www.peledmigrainesurgery.com to learn more about migraine relief through surgery.  

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THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CERVICOGENIC HEADACHES AND ON - IS THERE ONE?

I recently read a comment from a patient asking a very interesting question - “What is the difference between occipital neuralgia (ON) and cervicogenic headaches (CH)?”

Unfortunately the answer to this question is not a straightforward one. It has been postulated that pain in the head/neck region can be referred from problems in the bony or soft tissues of the neck, but there is still some controversy as to whether cervicogenic headache constitutes a distinct clinical entity. The upper-most cervical nerves and their branches are the most commonly cited sources of CH with the most common source being the C2/C3 levels. The actual definition of cervicogenic headaches is also not firmly established. One accepted way of defining this disorder is by its clinical characteristics. Specifically, it is a unilateral pain of variable severity that is not stabbing and radiates from posterior to anterior. It doesn’t shift from side to side, is brought on by unusual head position or neck motion and may be associated with shoulder or upper extremity pain on the same side. The biggest issue with this definition is that it overlaps with many of the characteristics of other headache disorders such as tension headaches and migraines without aura. Another way of defining CH is by demonstrating a cervical source of pain and confirming that source with a nerve block.

Diagnostic criteria for CH have been established by the Cervicogenic Headache International Study Group (CHISG) and by the International Headache Society (IHS). The former’s criteria require signs or symptoms brought on by awkward head movements or positioning or by pressure over the occipital nuchal structures and possibly confirmed by anesthetic blockade. The IHS criteria mandate that the pain be referred from an identifiable and plausible source in the head/neck (as demonstrated on imaging such as MRI) or by successful blockade of a nerve or cervical structure. Moreover, the pain must resolve within 90 days of successful treatment of the underlying problem. However, the IHS criteria do not define when, where, and how much pain is caused by CH (i.e. the clinical features).

In contrast, most neurologists would define ON in a very specific way. The classic description is that of paroxysmal pain in the distribution of the occipital nerves, sometimes, but not always accompanied by changes in skin sensation in the back of the scalp. The symptoms of ON are also thought to have a character of burning or hypersensitivity that may be constant on top of the intermittent shooting pains described above. These symptoms should be temporarily relieved by occipital nerve blocks.

So what to do with all of this information? Unfortunately, I find these definitions and descriptions minimally helpful since many of the symptoms of ON and other headache disorders for that matter can overlap with those of CH. For example, many of my patients with ON who have been successfully treated with decompression had exacerbation of their pain with awkward head positions and motions because these positions further compressed and irritated the occipital nerves. There are many patients who have unilateral ON. Therefore is ON a subset of CH? From my reading of the literature, most neurologists would seem to disagree, but I am uncertain as to why. Is CH a distinct clinical disorder? As stated above, there is disagreement as to whether it is versus just a descriptor of where the pain is coming from.

All of which brings me to the take home message. When it comes to any disorder, but especially chronic headaches, the only relevant questions in my humble opinion are: 1) can you figure out what’s causing it and 2) if you can, can you do anything about it? You can call the headache whatever you like - migraines without aura, CH, George - the names are irrelevant. With that in mind, I believe that the literature has shown that accurate diagnosis of ON with nerve blocks or Botox is a good predictor of a good result with surgical decompression. Moreover, surgical decompression has been shown to be very effective and have a very low complication rate with good long term results.

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Get Migraine Relief Right up the Coast, Beverly Hills

migraines

We are asked quite a bit whether we will see Beverly Hills patients for migraine surgery, or if we’ll see out-of-town patients as well. Of course we do!  Anyone may be able to achieve significant and lasting relief no matter where they call home! We have helped patients from all across the United States, and as far away as India and Brazil. We are excited to help people from all over the globe as peripheral nerve surgery is an area to which I have dedicated a large portion of my practice and is something about which I remain very passionate. We wish to extend an invitation to everyone anywhere to look us up and decide for themselves whether we might be able to help to reduce or eliminate their chronic headaches with peripheral nerve surgery.

I have performed hundreds of decompression procedures on nerves for chronic headaches with high success rates. Many of these people had been living with their headaches for decades and had resigned themselves to a life of chronic pain despite medication. Happily, we proved that was not the case. Furthermore, because we see so many foreign and out of town patients, we have developed a system to help make your overall experience as seamless as possible. We can assist with travel planning, lodging, transportation to and from the operating room and even post-operative nursing care if required. In addition, Dr. Peled is available for initial record review and evaluations via Skype or Google+ to help determine if a trip from home is a worthwhile endeavor. Finally, because post-operative follow-up is an extremely important part of the surgical experience and critical to achieving optimal outcomes, we use these same modalities to keep tabs on our patients after they have gone home and remain available to discuss issues with your local treating physicians if needed. This important time can be hard for patients as well as doctors that can't see their patients directly, but our practice has refined this process to ask the right questions and determine if any further action is needed.

So if you suffer from chronic headaches, please visit us at www.peledmigrainesurgery.com or call us at 415-751-0583 or 925-933-5700 to find out if we can reduce or eliminate your migraines. We look forward to hearing from you!

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"A Novel Surgical Approach to Chronic Temporal Headaches"

My paper, "A Novel Surgical Approach to Chronic Temporal Headaches" has been accepted into for publication in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery!  This is a huge honor and  will help me reach a large audience to let them know what you already know if you've been following our site - Chronic Temporal Headaches can be relieved with surgery.  If you suffer from migraines or chronic headaches, there is a way to help.

 

Keep an eye on this blog and our Facebook and Twitter pages to read the article in full when it's released.  If you have questions about migraines or nerve surgery, you can read all about them here at peledmigrainesurgery.com or call us to talk about it at 415-751-0583 on San Francisco or 925-933-5700 in Walnut Creek.  You don't have to live with chronic migraines any more.  Don't spend another day in pain.

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The Staged Approach to Migraine Pain Relief

headache - medium

I was recently asked why some people require more than one operation to obtain optimal relief.  As usual, the answer has many components to it so I will try to delineate some of these issues below.  Let me preface these remarks by stating that what I write below is my opinion only and how I approach patients, but should not be considered dogma.  While a number of colleagues also use this approach, it is not necessarily shared by every peripheral nerve surgeon, some of whom will be more aggressive and some less aggressive. 

In situations where there are many nerves that will require surgical intervention to achieve an optimal result, there are number of reasons why I prefer to stage the operations.  The first is that in many cases, patients often say that one area usually flares up first and when very severe or unable to be controlled, causes the headache and discomfort to spread to other areas.  For example, s/he will state that their neck gets tight, they get occipital headache pain and if the medication is unable to help, the headache spreads to the temples and forehead.  In these particular cases, there may be a reasonable assumption that the occipital area is triggering the frontal and temporal headaches.  Therefore, theoretically if the occipital nerves are appropriately addressed, with time and healing, those triggering nerves should calm down such that the frontal and temporal areas are only triggered infrequently and hopefully to a much lesser degree.  In other words, if you can remove the fuse, the dynamite stick will never explode and therefore an operation to address the frontal and temporal nerves may never be required.  Even if this patient continues to have some degree of headaches, these headaches may be so infrequent and/or relatively mild such that they feel the remaining symptoms are easily manageable and don’t want another operation.  As I’ve said in prior posts, no one should tell you whether or not you should live with whatever pain you have.  Doing so is making a value judgment - only the patient can and should make that determination.  Secondly, let’s assume that a person has the appropriate operation over the occipital nerves and has a successful outcome with respect to their posterior headaches, but the temporal and frontal headaches persist even after several months of recovery.  In those cases, while another operation may be required to address the temporal and frontal nerves, there is now good reason to believe that the second procedure is likely to be successful.  The converse is also true, however, in that if the occipital procedure is performed correctly and for the right indications, but yields no result, I would wonder whether or not a temporal/frontal procedure would be indicated since I would be less confident surgical intervention in those areas would be successful if the same approach was unsuccessful over the occipital area, thereby precluding the potential for complications in areas where surgical intervention may not be successful.  Therefore, staging an operation has the potential to give you information about whether or not a second procedure will be helpful.

A third reason for staging these operations relates to the safety of an operation.  While I obviously agree that neuralgia (occipital or trigeminal branch) is a significant medical problem, these operations are elective.  Therefore, the most important thing we can do for the patient is given them a safe operation and try to minimize complications while maximizing the potential for a successful outcome.  From a technical standpoint, the longer a surgical procedure takes, the greater the chance for complications or issues arising from anesthesia.  While long operations can certainly be done safely, when it comes to elective surgery, the more efficient a procedure can be the better.  Therefore, if I had a choice between one 8-hour operation or two 4-hour operations, I would choose the latter because there is likely a lower risk for deep vein thrombosis (blood clots in the legs that can embolize), the need for an in-patient stay, post-operative nausea and other anesthesia-related issues. 

A fourth reason for staging operations has to do with recovery.  In my opinion (and as many of my patients will attest), one of the hardest parts of the surgical experience is the post-operative recovery which often has many ups and downs apart from the immediate, peri-operative surgical discomfort.  With respect to the latter, if you have incisions on the front, the sides and the back of your head bilaterally, I can only imagine how uncomfortable the whole head must feel and I often wonder how these patients rest at night since sleeping on any portion of the scalp is likely to result in discomfort.  Rest post-operatively is critical and lack thereof is potentially problematic.  In addition, as decompressed or transected nerves are manipulated in the operating room, the normal, post-operative inflammation can lead to many nerve-related symptoms which, if they occur all over the scalp as opposed to just posteriorly or over the temples, is likely to be quite uncomfortable.  Greater degrees of discomfort often lead to increased opioid use which, as many people will agree, can lead to a whole host of other issues such as constipation, cognitive impairment (e.g. sedation), nausea etc.

One last comment: I don’t use any one of these contra-indications in isolation.  They are all considered together as part of the overall clinical impression when I go over a patient’s records, examine him/her and perform whatever diagnostic maneuvers are necessary.  It is for these reasons among many others that I always recommend a consultation with a peripheral nerve surgeon when deciding if surgical intervention (whether decompression/neuroplasty or neurectomy/implantation) is appropriate.  I also believe that among the many questions patient’s should ask their potential surgeons is how they approach patient and why, especially if their case will involve more than one or two incisions.  I hope that these thoughts are helpful.

For more information, or to make an appointment, call Peled Migraine Surgery at 415-751-0583 and visit www.peledmigrainesurgery.com to learn more about migraine relief through surgery.  

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Our New Walnut Creek Address

Peled Plastic Surgery has moved our Walnut Creek office!  We are now located at 100 N. Wiget Lane, Suite 160 in Walnut Creek, CA.  The new office will allow us to see patients more efficiently. We are happy to have our new Walnut Creek base of operations up and running, and are looking forward to seeing you there!

 

Call us at 925-933-5700 to make an appointment for plastic surgery, migraine surgery, or any of our other treatments, and visit www.peledplasticsurgery.com to learn more about us!

 

About Dr. Peled

 

Ziv M. Peled, MD* is a Board-Certified plastic surgeon trained to perform the full spectrum of aesthetic and reconstructive plastic surgical procedures. He completed his medical school training at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine where he earned honors in multiple surgical disciplines. He subsequently completed four years of rigorous general surgical training at the University of Connecticut during which he also completed an additional two-year, post-doctoral Basic Science Research Fellowship at Stanford University under the tutelage of Dr. Michael T. Longaker, a pioneer in the field of scarless wound healing. During that time, Dr. Peled not only helped establish Dr. Longaker’s laboratory at Stanford, but was also awarded a 5-year NIH grant for his work in keloid biology and scarless wound repair. Ziv then completed a prestigious and highly sought-after plastic surgical residency at Harvard University. While there, he was awarded an “Excellence in Teaching” award from the Harvard medical students. Dr. Peled continued to hone his specialty skills with an additional year of training in peripheral nerve surgery at the Dellon Institute for Peripheral Nerve and Plastic Surgery. He is Board-Certified by the American Board of Plastic Surgery, which means that he graduated from an accredited medical school, completed numerous years of residency training, and successfully passed a series of comprehensive written and oral examinations. The American Board of 
Plastic Surgery is one of only a select few specialty boards recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) and is the only ABMS board which certifies candidates in the specialty of plastic surgery of the entire body. Dr. Peled is also a member of the California Society of Plastic Surgeons.

In addition to his cosmetic and reconstructive work, Dr. Peled helped to found a peripheral nerve surgery institute here in San Francisco. In that institute, he served as Director and Chief Plastic & Peripheral Nerve Surgeon. His specific training enables him to perform a unique set of surgical procedures designed specifically to restore sensation and minimize/eliminate pain in patients suffering from migraines as well as neuropathy due to diabetes, chemotherapy and thyroid disorders.  He has also treated many patients with various forms of nerve trauma as well as many other types of nerve disorders. Dr. Peled has authored and co-authored over 40 manuscripts and book chapters on all aspects of plastic surgery and has presented his work at numerous national meetings. He has performed several hundred peripheral nerve procedures of various kinds.  Ziv is an Active Member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and was also recently elected as a member of the American Society for Peripheral Nerve. This honor recognizes and highlights Dr. Peled's breadth of work with peripheral nerve patients suffering from migraines and diabetes as well as his published work on peripheral nerve surgery.  He continues to volunteer for the American Diabetes Association and has recently traveled to South America to provide reconstructive surgery to underprivileged children. In his spare time, he actively competes in both Half-Ironman and Ironman-distance triathlons.

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If Botox Doesn't Work, What's Next For Chronic Migraines?

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One of the questions that I‘m frequently asked during consultations with patients regarding their chronic headaches is, "If I’ve had Botox injections done with other doctors in the past and they have failed, does this mean that Botox injections done with you would not work either?" This is an excellent question and the simple answer is, “No".

One of the questions that I‘m frequently asked during consultations with patients regarding their chronic headaches is, "If I’ve had Botox injections with other doctors in the past and they have failed, does this mean that Botox injections done with Dr. Peled would not work either?" This is an excellent question and the simple answer is, “No".

Botox works primarily by relaxing muscles. In some people with chronic headaches, the nerves responsible for the pain that they feel are pinched by spastic muscles in the neck, temple or forehead. Injection of Botox into the muscle fibers around where the nerves are pinched may produce pain relief by relaxing those specific muscle fibers and reducing pressure on the nerve. However, the doses of Botox used and the injection technique are critical to achieving the desired result. Many patients have had Botox administered over numerous injection points (e.g. >30 injections) using relatively low doses at each injection site. Often, many of these injection sites don't correspond to the location of a pinched nerve within the muscle being relaxed by the Botox. While this technique may be successful some of the time, I have found much greater success and more accuracy by targeting points where nerves are known to pass through spastic muscles with slightly higher doses of Botox. By targeting specific areas of muscle known to be potential nerve compression sites, the overall dose of Botox and number of injections can be minimized. This technique not only reduces overall discomfort, but can keep costs to a minimum while still optimizing the potential benefits. Stated another way, the effectiveness of this approach is often much higher because the spastic muscle fibers immediately around a nerve are more relaxed and other muscle areas that don't have a nerve around them are left alone. The take-home message is that Botox must be used with appropriate dosing and appropriate injection techniques in order to achieve the desired result. If these parameters are not in place, a negative result may occur, but may not mean that the Botox was ineffective.

For more information, and to make an appointment with us to discuss Botox or peripheral nerve surgery to alleviate your headaches, contact our San Francisco Office at (415) 751-0583, our Walnut Creek Office at (925) 933-5700, and visit us online at today.http://peledmigrainesurgery.com 

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How long does recovery take following nerve decompression surgery for chronic headaches?

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How long does recovery take following nerve decompression surgery for chronic headaches? The answer to that question can be quite variable and depends on a number of parameters, but a few general principles apply.

How long does recovery take following nerve decompression surgery for chronic headaches? The answer to that question can be quite variable and depends on a number of parameters, but a few general principles apply. First and foremost, each patient is different in terms of their tolerance for discomfort. What may be a 9 out of 10 pain to one person may only be a 5 out of 10 pain to another person. Secondly, the number/distribution of the nerves which are decompressed is also unique to each individual. Obviously, if someone has 8 nerves decompressed in one procedure they are likely to have more discomfort than someone who only had one nerve decompressed. Finally, surgical technique and appropriate post-operative care are also important in achieving optimal results with minimal discomfort and downtime.

Generally speaking, most patients have mild-to-moderate discomfort following surgery. Pain medication and anti-nausea medication are prescribed to help patients manage these symptoms in the first few days-weeks following their procedure. The comment I hear most often from patients describing the first few weeks following their operation is that the chronic headache-type pain that they’ve always had is now gone, but that they now have discomfort at the site of the operation, which is expected. After a few weeks, this incisional discomfort diminishes and patients really start to feel great. I just saw a patient today who was 3 weeks post-decompression of both greater occipital nerves and the left lesser occipital nerve. She used to have severe headaches often lasting hours and even several days at a time and which would come on every other or every day. Over the intervening 3 weeks, she only reported 3 minor headaches which lasted a few minutes. Her surgical pain had diminished to a point where she had not required any narcotic medication after the 5 day following her procedure. Now that her incisional discomfort was at a minimum, she stated that she felt like a new person. The only restriction following her operation was avoiding strenuous exercise for 3-4 weeks. After that, her activity level can gradually be increased to its baseline level over a period of another 2-3 weeks. Patients may eat and drink whatever they like immediately following surgery and can shower in 48 hours. This type of response is fairly typical among my patient population. There are almost never any sutures to remove as they are all dissolvable. After a few weeks, a new you!

To find out more about peripheral nerve surgery and how it may help your migraines, please visit http://peledmigrainesurgery.comor call us at (415)751-0583 to schedule a formal consultation.

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Why Did I Get Occipital Neuralgia?

headache - mediumThe title of this post is really the $60,000 question. I have posted many times in the past about how Occipital Neuralgia can be caused by compression from spastic neck muscles, compression by tight connective tissue (i.e. fascia) and/or compression from surrounding blood vessels. Many of the patients I see have had headaches ever since they can remember. However, there are just as many for whom the headaches began seemingly spontaneously one day. The question for these folks remains: What happened? Why now?

 

There have been recent articles that hint at possible answers to these questions and they may surprise you. One of the most surprising comments was that craning the neck downward only 60º puts as much as 60 pounds of pressure on the cervical spine and neck muscles. With that kind of pressure, you can imagine that nerves (among other structures) would be compressed. So the explanation as to why you might all of a sudden develop ON can almost be summed up in one word - overuse. This explanation is one of the potential causes of carpal tunnel syndrome, the most common compression neuropathy recognized (even by neurologists). Why could that not be the case for ON. Nerves are very susceptible to chronic compression (see post - ‘What Causes Occipital Nerves to Malfunction’) even if intermittent. The occipital nerves take very circuitous routes through all of the nuchal soft tissues. When you add to that fact the constant motion of our necks that require the nerves to glide constantly and then compound those factors with an additional 60 pounds of added pressure, there are many things that may occur to those nerves.

 

One, they may simply get kinked as they make their way through the neck to the scalp. Not a week goes by when I don’t see a patient in the office who, in describing their headaches contorts their head to recapitulate their symptoms and when they get it just right, it’s like a thunderbolt of pain. Two, even if not kinked, the pressure will compress the vasa nervorum - the microscopic blood vessels within the nerves themselves that supply blood to those nerves. After numerous episodes of compression, especially if for prolonged periods, these blood vessels can clot and the nerves become ischemic (i.e. choked). The neurons that comprise that nerve then die off and try to regenerate causing the hyperesthetic symptoms so typical of ON. Three, even if the nerves recover from each successive insult, the additive microtrauma will likely result in some inflammation and the subsequent formation of scar tissue in the surrounding structures, thus closing off already tight corridors through which these nerves must pass - another compressive force. While no one has demonstrated these possibilities in real time, I see the sequelae of them in the OR weekly.

 

So what to do we do? Good posture, stretching and avoidance of triggering activities seem to make common sense. In addition, as many of you know and as intimated in the article, steroids seem to be the mainstay of treatment amongst some practitioners, but as also stated, the effects are often not permanent. The reason is obvious - the compressive forces remain, even if inflammation is temporarily suppressed. Therefore, I continue to believe that decompression (or neurectomy & implantation for permanently injured nerves) are reasonable options as they are safe and effective. Moreover, they address the underlying problem, the mechanical compression of these poor nerves caused by our ever more technologically demanding lifestyles. So next time you pick up your smartphone, remember to pick up your head as well.

 

For more information, read http://peledmigrainesurgery.com/blog/entry/whiplash-and-occipital-neuralgia-what-s-the-connection-1.html and visit www.peledmigrainesurgery.com for information on how to reduce your migraines and nerve pain.

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Dr. Ziv M Peled Wins Most Outstanding Paper at CSPS

Dr. Ziv M. Peled's paper entitled, "A Novel Surgical Approach to Chronic Temopral Headaches" won the 'Most Outstanding Paper Award' at the 2015 California Society of Plastic Surgeons annual meeting this past weekend in Monterey, CA! The paper was presented by Dr. Peled during the 4-day event that featured the top plastic surgeons in California giving presentations on their areas of expertise. Dr. Peled's paper was chosen from dozens of nominees as the top paper overall.

 

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CSPS Title

 

Ziv Presents

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Can You Get Migraine Relief Outside of San Francisco As Well?

headache - mediumDo you have to live in the San Francisco Bay Area to get relief from your severe, chronic headaches? No, anyone may be able to achieve significant and lasting relief no matter where they call home! We have helped patients from all across the United States, and as far away as India and Brazil. We are excited to help people from all over the globe as peripheral nerve surgery is an area to which I have dedicated a large portion of my practice and is something about which I remain very passionate. We wish to extend an invitation to everyone anywhere to look us up and decide for themselves whether we might be able to help to reduce or eliminate their chronic headaches with peripheral nerve surgery.

I have performed hundreds of decompression procedures on nerves for chronic headaches with high success rates. Many of these people had been living with their headaches for decades and had resigned themselves to a life of chronic pain despite medication. Happily, we proved that was not the case. Furthermore, because we see so many foreign and out of town patients, we have developed a system to help make your overall experience as seamless as possible. We can assist with travel planning, lodging, transportation to and from the operating room and even post-operative nursing care if required. In addition, Dr. Peled is available for initial record review and evaluations via Skype or Google+ to help determine if a trip from home is a worthwhile endeavor. Finally, because post-operative follow-up is an extremely important part of the surgical experience and critical to achieving optimal outcomes, we use these same modalities to keep tabs on our patients after they have gone home and remain available to discuss issues with your local treating physicians if needed. This important time can be hard for patients as well as doctors that can't see their patients directly, but our practice has refined this process to ask the right questions and determine if any further action is needed.

So if you suffer from chronic headaches, please visit us at www.peledmigrainesurgery.com or call us at 415-751-0583 or 925-933-5700 to find out if we can reduce or eliminate your migraines. We look forward to hearing from you!

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WHAT IF I STILL HAVE HEADACHES?

What If I Still Have Headaches?

Over the years, as I have operated on more and more patients with chronic headaches, my impression of this problem has changed somewhat. Time and again, I would see patients who had severe, frequent, long-lasting headaches who underwent surgery with me and did extremely well. Their headache frequency, severity and duration decreased significantly after their procedure and they were extremely happy.  However, many patients still experienced severe headaches from time to time and the question that was posed to be on many occasions was, "What does it mean that I still have some severe headaches after surgery?" As I have talked with numerous such patients on many occasions and drilled down on their remaining symptoms and their treatment of these symptoms, an interesting observation occurred to me.

One obvious conclusion is that there are other trigger points that have yet to be treated surgically and were not detected prior to the operation in question.  In some cases, operating on many trigger points is done in a staged manner on purpose because recovery after release of, for example, 16 different nerve trigger points throughout the head, neck and scalp would be a very prolonged and rather uncomfortable post-operative recovery process.  In other cases, once the primary and most painful trigger were adequately treated, areas that were and remained less severely compressed and therefore less noticeable reared their ugly heads. In these instances the treatment was to work up these additional potential trigger points as I did the primary trigger points and treat them surgically if deemed necessary.

A second possibility also occurred to me quite some time ago as I spoke to patients about how they treated their residual headaches. There are a number of patients who have told me that pre-operatively they would take whatever preventative or abortive medication(s) they were prescribed by their treating physicians and that the medicine would work “approximately 50%” of the time. In other words flip a coin.  Post-operatively, however, when these same patients experienced severe headaches, they found that the same medications almost always worked. I would hear this refrain over and over again and many a patient was puzzled by the change.

If you think about it, however, the answer actually makes perfect sense.  I believe that some patients actually have a combination of mechanical compression over one or more nerves in addition to chemical imbalances within the brain that cause their headaches. Once a surgical procedure has treated the former, the latter is all that remains.  Therefore, when a post-op patient experiences a severe headache that cannot be attributed to a persistently compressed nerve in another area, it could be secondary to a chemical imbalance.  If that is true, then medication will help and explains why medication seems to be more effective after surgery, when needed.  With this combination of treatment modalities, patients tell me on a consistent basis that their chronic headaches have gone from a debilitating to a very manageable problem.

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CHRONIC MIGRAINE RELIEF

Migraine headaches have traditionally been thought to begin within the central nervous system (i.e. the brain and/or spinal cord) and then produce symptoms elsewhere such as throbbing in the back of the head, forehead or temples. There are many theories as to what exactly within the central nervous system is causing these chronic and often debilitating headaches. Some of these theories include pathologic blood vessel dilatation and constriction (loosening and tightening), abnormal firing of neurons within the brain, and abnormalities of various biologic substances (e.g. serotonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide). The fact that no one theory has been proven correct is likely one of the many reasons that there are so many different methods for the treatment of chronic headaches like migraines. In fact, from a medication standpoint alone, there are not only dozens of medications used to treat migraines, but dozens of classes of medications such as triptans, anti-depressants, muscle relaxants, blood pressure medications, narcotics, anesthetics, ergotamines, and so on. Fortunately, a different perspective on chronic headaches has produced remarkable results that have been previously unheard of.

This different school of thought suggests that peripheral nerve irritation (i.e. irritation of nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord such as those within the scalp or forehead) can cause irritation within the central nervous system thus leading to the perception of and symptoms of a headache. If this mechanism were in fact the culprit, then identifying and correcting the cause of such irritation could produce relief from the headache symptoms. Plastic surgeons have been doing exactly that with a common nerve irritation problem known as carpal tunnel syndrome. In this syndrome, a nerve within the wrist is compressed (i.e. pinched) and surgeons decompress (i.e. un-pinch) it thereby relieving the symptoms of pain with a greater than 90% success rate. Recent research has demonstrated that just like at the wrist, there are nerves within the head and neck that are compressed and that decompressing them, can produce significant or even complete relief that is permanent.

For more information, please visit www.peledmigrainesurgery.com and call 415-751-0583 to setup an appointment!

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Hey Dr Peled, What Is Peripheral Nerve Surgery?

How does peripheral nerve surgery help my life, and what can it mean for my migraines?

What exactly is meant by the term, ‘peripheral nerve surgery’? Peripheral nerve surgery specifically refers to operations performed on nerves within the peripheral nervous system, in other words those nerves located outside of the brain and spinal cord (aka the central nervous system). It also helps to think of these nerves as being located in the periphery of the body such as the arms and legs although it also includes nerves located in trunk and scalp/face regions. Pathology causing problems within the peripheral nervous system can take many forms. There can be pressure on a nerve as it passes through its normal route from the brain and spinal cord to its final location, for example at the toes or back of the scalp. There may be pressure on a nerve from a tumor within the nerve itself or from a tumor external to the nerve. A nerve may have been cut from a prior accident or prior surgical procedure. There can also be injuries to nerves that have been excessively stretched such as may occur following a whiplash-type of injury.


The procedures performed on these peripheral nerves ultimately depend upon the pathology in question. If there is external pressure on the nerves causing irritation, this external pressure is relieved. An example of this type of procedure is that performed during a nerve decompression to treat chronic headaches. If there is a tumor within the nerve, it can often be removed and the nerve preserved or in other cases reconstructed to preserve sensation and function. If a nerve has been cut, it may be able to be repaired surgically.
Plastic surgeons with peripheral nerve experience have been performing peripheral nerve surgery for years to correct a common and well-known malady known as carpal tunnel syndrome, where the surrounding tissue pinches the one of the main nerves at the wrist. These surgeons decompress or un-pinch the nerve by adjusting the tissue surrounding it, leaving the nerve intact. This procedure has a very high success rate. Recent research has demonstrated that just like at the wrist, there are nerves within the head and neck that are compressed and that decompressing them, can produce significant or even complete relief from chronic headaches that can be permanent. The results with these latter procedures have been quite dramatic. In one study out of Georgetown University, data from 190 patients with chronic pain/headaches in the back of the head who underwent surgical decompression were analyzed. One year after surgery, the patients were evaluated and over 80% of patients reported at least 50% pain relief and over 43% of patients experienced complete relief of their headaches! In February 2011, the five-year results of such procedures were published in the medical journal, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. This study demonstrated that five years following their headache operation, 88% of patients were still reporting greater than 50% improvement in their headache symptoms and 29% were completely headache-free!
To find out more about these exciting developments, please visit http://peledmigrainesurgery.com or call us at (415)751-0583 to schedule a formal consultation.

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